A primary issue in accounting for inventories is the amount to be recognised in the statement of financial position. The objective of IAS 2 is to prescribe the accounting treatment for inventories. Inventories are assets:
Inventories are valued at the lower of cost and net realizable value so as not to overstate inventories and eventually profit. This is in line with the prudence concept which states that the accounts of a business should anticipate losses and not profits.
A company has two items in inventory which require to be repaired before sale
Selling Price ($)
Repair costs (S)
What is the total inventory value of these items?
Item 1 = $ 5 200
Item 2 = $ 2 200
Value of inventory = $ 7 4 00
Inventory has been damaged. The inventory cost S 1200. It would have been sold for $ 1 800 when perfect. It can be sold for $ 1 700 if repairs are undertaken at $ 600. To replace the inventory would cost $ 1 000. At what value should the damaged inventory be shown in the final accounts?
Value of inventory = $ 1 700 - $ 600 = $ 1 100
According to IAS 2, the cost of inventories shall comprise all costs of purchase, costs of conversion and other costs incurred in bringing the inventories to their present location and condition. The net realizable value of inventories is the estimated selling price in the ordinary course of business less the estimated costs necessary to make the sale.
If various batches of inventories have been purchased at different times during the year and at different prices, it may be impossible to determine precisely which items are still held at the year end. In such circumstances, IAS 2 allowed the following methods to be used
IAS 2 does not allow the use of LIFO (Last In First Out) since it overstate inventory and profit.
Advantages FIFO (first in, first out)
Disadvantages FIFO (first in, first out)
Advantages AVCO (average cost)
Disadvantages AVCO (average cost)